A. E. Hedin
(retired, formerly at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)
Parameter: Neutral densities and temperature of the thermosphere
(1) From NSSDC's Request Office on tape or on diskette for use on PCs;
(2) Related software are archived at NSSDC and can be retrieved directly from NSSDC's anonymous FTP site;
(3) The extended version MSIS-E-90 can be run online from ModelWeb.
The Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter (MSIS) model describes the neutral temperature and densities in the upper atmosphere (above about 100 km). MSIS-86 constitutes the upper part of the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) 1986. The MSIS model is based on the extensive data compilation and analysis work of A. E. Hedin and his colleagues. Data sources include measurements from several rockets, satellites (OGO 6, San Marco 3, AEROS-A, AE-C, AE-D, AE-E, ESRO 4, and DE 2), and incoherent scatter radars (Millstone Hill, St. Santin, Arecibo, Jicamarca, and Malvern). The model expects as input year, day of year, Universal Time, altitude, geodetic latitude and longitude, local apparent solar time, solar F10.7 flux (for previous day and three-month average), and magnetic Ap index (daily or Ap history for the last 59 hours). For these conditions the following output parameters are calculated: number density of He, O, N2, O2, Ar, H, and N, total mass density; neutral temperature and exospheric temperature. For diagnostic purposes the source code is equipped with 23 flags to turn on/off particular variations. Hedin (1988) compared all three MSIS models with each other and with the Jacchia 1970 and 1977 models.
CIRA 1986, Part I: Thermosphere Model, D. Rees (ed.), Adv. Space Res. 8, #5-#6, 1988.
S. Batten, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, and D. Rees, A Numerical Data Base for VAX and Personal Computers for Storage, Reconstruction, and Display of Global Thermospheric and Ionospheric Models, Planet. Space Sci. 35, 1167, 1987.