A. E. Hedin
(retired, formerly at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)
Parameter: Neutral densities and temperature from ground to thermosphere
(1) From NSSDC's Request Office on tape or on one diskette for use on PCs;
(2) Related software are archived at NSSDC and can be retrieved directly from NSSDC's anonymous FTP site;
(3) Can be run directly from VITMO ModelWeb;
(4) A new version of the MSISE90 model is available from NRL NRLMSISE-00.
The MSISE model describes the neutral temperature and densities in Earth's atmosphere from ground to thermospheric heights. Below 72.5 km the model is primarily based on the MAP Handbook (Labitzke et al., 1985) tabulation of zonal average temperature and pressure by Barnett and Corney, which was also used for the CIRA-86. Below 20 km these data were supplemented with averages from the National Meteorological Center (NMC). In addition, pitot tube, falling sphere, and grenade sounder rocket measurements from 1947 to 1972 were taken into consideration. Above 72.5 km MSISE-90 is essentially a revised MSIS-86 model taking into account data derived from space shuttle flights and newer incoherent scatter results. For someone interested only in the thermosphere (above 120 km), the author recommends the MSIS-86 model. MSISE is also not the model of preference for specialized tropospheric work. It is rather for studies that reach across several atmospheric boundaries.
K. Labitzke, J. J. Barnett, and B. Edwards (eds.), Handbook MAP 16, SCOSTEP, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1985.
A. E. Hedin, Extension of the MSIS Thermospheric Model into the Middle and Lower Atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159, 1991.